Why is this important?
British and Irish citizens - claiming benefits
If you're a UK or an Irish citizen coming to live in the UK from abroad you may want to claim benefits. Depending on how long you have been out of the country, you may also have to satisfy the conditions of a test, known as the habitual residence test (HRT) before you're allowed to make a claim.
To meet the conditions of the test you must prove:
- you have a legal right to live in the UK and claim these benefits. This is called right to reside and
- you intend to settle in the UK, Isle of Man, Channel Islands or Ireland and make it your home for the time being. This is known as habitual residence.
This page explains whether you may need to satisfy the conditions of the HRT when you return to the UK.
Proving your right to reside and intention to settle in the UK can be difficult. If you're unsure about your rights and status you can get help from an adviser.
If you're a British citizen you have an automatic right to reside in the UK, as well as in Ireland, Isle of Man and Channel Islands. This is known as the common travel area and you will also be considered to be habitually resident in the UK if you've been living in any of these places.
However, if you have recently returned to the UK after a period living outside of the common travel area, you may still have to show that you satisfy the habitual residence test in order to claim certain benefits. You will not be subject to the test if you have simply been on a long holiday or a gap year but if you have spent many years away and/or no longer have property or close family in the UK you are likely to be subject to the test.
The Habitual Residence Test (HRT) looks at what ties you already have in the UK and what you are doing to make the UK the centre of your life. They will want to know how much you have cut ties with the country where you were living before. You will be asked a series of questions tailored to your individual circumstances to try and find out this information. You should be ready to give as much evidence and documentation as you can if you are asked about your habitual residence status.
The Department for Work and Pensions, your local authority or HMRC will decide at what point you can be viewed as habitually resident, depending on how long you have been away, why you were abroad, and what ties you kept with the UK during this time.
From 1 January 2014 new legislation means that you cannot satisfy the HRT in order to claim income-based Jobseeker's Allowance until you have been living in the UK or elsewhere in the common travel area for at least three months. This means that if you claim this benefit immediately on your return to the UK from outside this area you will not receive the benefit for at least three months. Even after three months you will still have to show that you are habitually resident in the UK.
If you're planning to move back to the UK and you think you will need benefits and housing straight away, think about how you would cope if you can't meet the conditions of the test.
Irish citizens automatically have a right to reside in the UK as part of the common travel area. If you were habitually resident in Ireland or any of the places in the common travel area before you came to the UK, you will automatically satisfy the conditions of the HRT.
However, if you come to the UK from a country outside the common travel area, you will have to prove you're habitually resident here to meet those conditions. As with UK citizens returning from abroad, from 1 January 2014 you cannot satisfy the HRT in order to claim income-based jobseeker's Allowance until you have been living in the UK for at least three months.
- Proving your status and intention to settle in the UK
- Check if you are exempt from taking the test
- What to do if you don't have the right to reside
- More about the habitual residence test and the benefits it applies to
- If you need more help
Other useful information
- Case-law examples of the habitual residence test at www.parliament.uk - go to page 12
- What the European law says – the EC Directive 2004/38 at www.eur-lex.europa.eu
- What the UK law says – Immigration (EEA) Regulations 2006 at www.legislation.gov.uk
- Department for Work and Pensions at www.dwp.gov.uk